The Importance of Water Intake

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Thank you all so much for joining me today. My name is Dani Hill. I wanted to health educators with optima health and today we're going to talk a little bit about the importance of water consumption.

Definitely a timely topic as we are in the midst of the hottest part of the summer and it's certainly in the front of all of our minds. Why water is so important? Because I'm sure we're thinking about it more everyday as it gets hotter and hotter throughout the day.

What we're going to discuss is a little bit about the benefits of water also, understanding dehydration and why it's so important to continue to drink water throughout the day. And then we'll also discuss some ways that we can increase our water intake. And we'll talk about some of the more popular water alternatives to dig into those a little bit more. So, let's get started with understanding why water is important.

We can see on our screen here there's a lot of great benefits from maintaining our hydration. And when we think about water, as we've seen it outside the body, we can see how these benefits might make since inside the body.

So, first off, let's think about keeping our temperature cool. Well, think about when you add hot water to cold water to find the right temperature, that's a way that we might be able to see it outside the body and certainly would make sense inside the body as well.

Next, cushioning our joints. First thing that comes to mind for me is thinking about a water balloon and how you can manipulate it when you put stress on it. Our joints do the same thing. The water serves as kind of a cushion. So that we don't put too much pressure on that water balloon or on our joints in the body.

Next we talk about protecting our spinal cord and other sensitive tissues. Well, again, let's think back to that same water balloon and imagine putting something inside of it along with the water now, the balloon is serving as an encasement for protection, just like our spinal cord. So, again, there's another example of how inside and outside the body water serving as a barrier, and as a, as a cushion at the same time.

And then the last benefit that we see listed here is really as water is a vehicle for elimination. And the easiest way to think about that is simply just rinsing something off with a hose. Right? You go to the beach; you've got sand on your beach chairs. You come home and you hit them with the hose and it'll remove all of that sand. In our body, we might think about that as waste. And that would be in the form of urination, perspiration, or our bowel movements.

All of these things makes sense when we think about them outside the body subsequently they might make sense inside the body to, right, in terms of what water can do for us.

So, if you were to type the same question, at the top of the slide, why is water important, if you were to type that into Google, here's some other things that you might see that come up as popular benefits.

And if you're looking here, these are probably things that you've seen before, maybe in a magazine article that you've that you've read, or maybe, as a, a tagline on a commercial, or for a product of some sort in terms of how water can be beneficial.

I couldn't find any recent evidence based peer reviewed articles on these, but I can see how the benefits listed on the left might overlap with those that are listed on the right.

So, now that we kind of see a little bit about certainly what we can find with lots of research on the left here, and what we can find as claimed by lots of different companies and articles, and even professionals across the scientific and medical field, how are these things happening? How is water playing a role in all of these important benefits?

Well, when we eat and drink water, water molecules move through our track into the small intestine and then they’re absorbed through the lining of our intestines. Water molecules are then carried through our body, through the blood in our body, into different cells that have all different types of task all throughout the body.

So, at the cell level, water can enter in through the cell membrane through osmosis, which moves water from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. And as a way of doing that, it moves nutrients into the cell as well as it pushes the waste out of the cell and this is important, because our cells function their best as they're supposed to when they find a balance; when they find a homeostatic environment that they can function in.

And that is what water is doing. It's providing that balance. So when we look at our screen here, it's going to give you a quick illustration of how that happens. That thick, black vertical line that you see in the middle of your screen is serving as our cell membrane and those green and blue circles are representing the inside of the cell and the orange and blue circles on the left are representing outside of the cell. As you can imagine, water is what we're showing here as the blue circles. So, we can see that there's more water on the outside of the cell than there is on the inside of the cell. Our orange circles are nutrients that want to move into the cell and our green circles are waste that wants to move out of the cell.

So, what happens here is that water simply pushes those nutrients in and pushes the waste out. And so we can see that in taking a good amount of water is going to help that that process happens all throughout the body at all different places. In terms of what cells function may be because that can vary very much from one part of the body to another or one system in the body or another.

After that waste has been removed by the cells it's sent to the kidneys where it's formed into urine and that is then removed from the body when we use the restroom. Our kidneys also remove acid that's produced by the cells of our body and our kidneys also help to maintain a healthy balance of water, salts and minerals, in our blood.

So, without that balance, again, our nerves, our muscles, other tissues in our body are not going to work as well as they normally would. And what you see here on the screen is that in a single day, our kidneys filter about a hundred and fifty quarts of blood, most of the water and the substances that filtered through that actually just returns back to the body for use again. So, we only end up producing about one to two quarts of urine from all of that blood filtration.

So, now that we understand a little bit of the physiology of why water is important in the body let's talk about what happens if we don't have enough. Well, dehydration is what happens if we don't have enough, right?

That occurs when our body doesn't have as much water or fluid as it needs. Basically you use or lose more fluid than you've taken in and your body doesn't have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions. Right? At the most basic level, we're not being able to push those nutrients into our cells and push the waste out of the cells as effectively just as we talked about. If you don't replace the fluids that we lose you get dehydrated. Dehydration can be mild, moderate or severe based on how much of your body's fluid is lost or not replaced and severe dehydration can certainly be life threatening. So, let's talk through some signs of dehydration and what the consequences might be.

If you look here, again, we have two columns of information on your slide. And on the left, you’re looking at signs. So, these are things that you might notice about yourself if you're starting to get dehydrated. You've probably heard this before - if you're thirsty, you're already dehydrated. Right? That's one of the first signs that we might see. We might get flushed skin, feeling a little bit tired faster than normal, although we can certainly point fatigue towards lots of different things,right? Increase in our body temperature is something that might happen if we get dehydrated. And then faster breathing and pulse rate, and definitely you might feel like you're having to put in a lot more effort to get something done than you normally would. So those are signs of dehydration.

Consequences of dehydration are going to be things that we may also feel in our body. And these are things that, again, we talked about the productivity of ourselves, the efficiency of our cells all throughout the body, when they're pushing those nutrients and pushing that waste out. And when it's not happening at the pace that it needs to, these might be things that we notice are happening. So unclear thinking, definitely changing our mood. I know, for me, if I'm thirsty and I'm hot, I'm probably not going to be in as good of a mood. Constipation - I'm sure that we've probably all if you've had grandchildren or children, nieces and nephews, things like that, you've probably experienced when a baby or a young child gets constipated. And usually, that's because they're so busy running around that they don't drink enough water throughout the day. Kidney stones, overheating, rapid heartbeat or breathing irritability dizziness - those would all be the consequences of dehydration.

And something that's important to remember here is that there are lots of things that can impact your level of hydration. So, we'll talk about that as we go farther into the presentation, but know that certainly other health conditions may cause these signs and consequences. Certainly types of medication may do that. So, don't always assume that if you're feeling an increase in your body temperature, “oh, I'm just dehydrated.” Make sure that you're checking all of those other boxes and, you know, that there's, you know, that there might be some other indicators that are causing that.

So, what's interesting is if we think back to many of those health claims, those claimed health benefits, I should say, of drinking water; our Google searches, we can see that there's a bit of an overlap here between the consequences of dehydration and the potential benefits. So, again, this this is making sense. We're kind of validating some of these claims that we may have seen.

So, knowing all of this, how can we tell if we're dehydrated? Well, there's a few tests that we can do to see how to see how hydrated we are.

The first one is called a skin turgor test or skin pinch test is an easier way to say this. Skin turgor is a sign of the fluid loss. And what you can do is just grab the skin on the back of your hand between two fingers and if it stays tented up, that's usually an indication that you're a little bit dehydrated. You can also do this on your abdomen or on your arm. But we hold it for a few seconds and then we release it. If the skin goes back pretty rapidly to its normal position, then we say that we have normal skin turgor. If we see that it takes a little bit for the skin to return to its regular position, then that might be a poor turgor and lack of skin turgor occurs with moderate to severe fluid loss. Mild dehydration is somewhere around 5% fluid loss for our body weight. Moderate dehydration is about 10% percent of body loss, a body weight, loss and dehydration and then 15% or more would be considered severe. So, this is, you know, you're, you've got a considerable amount of fluid loss if you're seeing a skin turgor that's not going back to normal within a couple of seconds.

Our next test is a nail blanch test. Easier way to remember this is just a fingertip press tests. And basically, what we do is we apply pressure to the nail bed until it turns white and that indicates that blood has been forced away from the tissue under the nail. It’s called blanching. And once that tissue has been blanched, we take that pressure off and we should see that that pink color that you should see under your nail bed returns rather quickly. This is something that you might see a healthcare provider do, and we look at how much time it takes for that blood to return to the spot under the nail bed where we've applied pressure. Again, just within a couple of seconds that color should turn back to pink, so, if it's not returning to pink in about two seconds, then that could be a sign of dehydration. It may be some other things too, right? It could be something like hypothermia, vascular disease or even shock.

So, again, don't take this to mean, only that you could be dehydrated. Look at how all of your symptoms maybe, or maybe lining up.

And then most simple one here is a urine color test, right? So, our goal is to have clear or light yellow urine. The darker it is, the more dehydrated we typically are. Again, as I mentioned before, things like medication or other health conditions may impact your urine color. You could be very well hydrated. So definitely, speak with your healthcare provider if that might be applicable to you. But one way to remember is if it’s lemonade, it’s good, if it’s apple juice, it’s not. So we want that lighter yellow color or clear would be the best.

Alright, so, let's talk about some ways to increase water intake. Well, there's many factors, again, that can impact how much water you need. Things like your age, your gender, your activity level and just your overall health, again medications, like we talked about before.

Women usually require more water when they're pregnant, when they're breastfeeding and individuals with certain health conditions, like we talked about, may have different fluid needs. And the same is true for those that might be dealing with a serious infection, or diarrhea, you know, think about when you have a flu for example, they say, drink lots and lots of water or stomach bug drink lots and lots of water because you're losing more water than you normally would. Adequate intake levels of water have been determined for generally healthy people to be based upon age and gender.

For women, that's about eleven and a half cups of water. For men, about fifteen and a half cups.

And what you're seeing here is an example in those large, 32 ounce cups that a lot of us drink out of now, think of a Tervis or a Yeti, or something like that.

So, what we're seeing here on the screen is for women about three of those a day; for men about four of those a day.

But these estimates also include how much water you should be consuming from both foods and beverages. Typically, about 20% of the water that you need comes from food that you eat so, taking that into account, really women need about nine cups of actual fluid per day and men need about twelve and a half cups of fluid per day to replenish the amount of water that's lost or being recycled to the body. So what are some ways that we can increase our water intake? Let's go through these quickly.

One would be just to simply bring water with you when you're going around, you know, running errands or heading into work. Take water with you.

Certainly some of those types of cups that I just mentioned - a Yeti, or Tervis or any of the stainless steel cups typically, hold ice for a long period of time so your water can stay nice and cold.

If that is something that might hinder you from usually taking water with you. You certainly can work around that pretty easy nowadays. So just carry that water bottle with you.

Next would be to increase your fruit and vegetable intake. There's lots of produce that is very high and water content. Things like cantaloupes, strawberries, watermelons vegetables, like lettuce, cabbage celery, spinach, cooked squash typically have somewhere between 90 – 100% of water content. And the easy way to think about those is if you were to cook any of those things, they would let a lot of water out when they're cooked. Think about squash is a great example, or cabbage how much they wilt and how much water is left in your pan when you cook them. That's an indication of how much water really is in those fresh fruits and vegetables.

Other really good ones to consider might be bananas, grapes, oranges, pears and pineapples; vegetables like carrots, cooked broccoli, avocados. Those typically have between 70 – 89% water content and also some dairy products like yogurt, cottage cheese and ricotta cheese. So, again, any kind of produce that doesn't change shape all that much when cooked probably is not going to have a lot of water content in it. Think about things like a potato. Doesn't matter if you boil it or or bake in the oven. It may get softer but it doesn't really change shape. However, if you were to cook again, like a strawberry, you know, it, it'll basically change shape if you could cook it too long. So higher water content usually comes from those that change shape quite a bit when they're cooked.

Next would be just to freeze some water, some freezer safe water bottles and take them along so you have ice cold water all day. This is good especially if you need to pack a lunch and you can't access the refrigerator to put your food in, put in a bottle of frozen water into it will serve as a way to keep the food cold throughout the day and then also you can drink it as it melts.

Choose water, instead of sugar beverages. This is a pretty easy one to do as well so that can also help with weight management. Substituting water for just one 20 oz sugar sweetened beverage will save you about 240 -250 calories in just that one drink. So if you can swap just one out, you're going to have the double benefit of increasing your water consumption and reducing your calories per day.

Next would be to choose water when eating out. Generally you'll save money and you'll reduce your calories. A lot of us when we're going out to eat, tend to choose menu items that typically are higher in their calorie content than what we probably make at home. So, find some balance there and save a little bit of money.

And last specifically for your water, we'll talk about this a little bit more towards the end of the presentation, but if you're just one of those people that doesn't enjoy the taste of plain water, simply just adding a wedge of some type of citrus produce, citrus fruit is a great way to help the taste and help you drink more than you usually would.

So let's talk through some really popular water alternatives. I've chosen three that have gotten probably the most attention in the past couple years. Certainly, we're not going to cover them all today. But what I would say is if I don't cover one that you're that you have questions about go online, take a look for some really good vetted resources, things like the CDC or the NIH, or the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, those are going to be places that you're going to find some really sound research to give you a good comprehensive answer to those types of questions.

The first would be coconut water. Coconut water is not water that's had coconut flavor added to it. It's actually the clear fluid that's inside the coconut. That shouldn't be confused with coconut milk.

Coconut milk is an emulsion of that water with some graded coconut in it, but coconut water is considered a type of juice and from an unripe coconut.

If you've read about coconut water, the liquid again, is from unripe coconut fruit. If you've seen it online, or in the media for a long time, it was kind of claimed to be like the miracle beverage, because it could cure everything from heart disease to obesity. However, let's let's go through some of these claims.

If you’ve seen these claims, we're going to go through them, we're going to see what register dietitians might have to say.

The first is, is it myth or fact, that coconut water is an ideal post exercise drink? Well, that is a myth. You might see a lot of people at the gym drinking this, because it contains electrolytes, which you lose when you sweat but for the average person, when they're going into exercise, as long as you're drinking enough fluids and eating a healthy diet for the remainder of the day, having coconut water after a workout isn’t really going to give you any significant benefit other than hydration which normal water would do for you. Unflavored coconut water is low in sugar and calories but it’s is not the perfect sports drink. Sports drinks are meant to replace fluids, supply energy and replace sodium and potassium lost through perspiration. And it’s also intended to give you energy. A lot of the time that energy is delivered to you in the form of sugar in sports drinks because if an athlete is enduring a long event, they need that quick way to get energy into their body for the time being. So we’ve got myth there.

The next one here is that you hydrate better with coconut water. Alright, so you hydrate better with coconut water than you would with regular water again. This one's a myth. There's no scientific proof that coconut water is more hydrating than regular water. There's a great amount of variability, however, with coconut water, in terms of how many electrolytes might be in it. How many vitamins minerals and sugar content, and that can that can range from one brand to a never to another. So, you don't really know what you're going to get there, make sure that you're looking at your labels to see, you know, those nutrition labels to see if they've put added sugar in there or maybe what had been, what has been added to it.

Next is that coconut water can keep you looking young, righ; that it's got some anti-aging properties, and I hate to be the bearer of bad news but, again, that’s myth. Being well, hydrated does help you look and feel better, but water works just as well for this. And as to the online claims that coconut water can kind of help with our cellular proliferation that's, you know, our, our body's ability to turn cells over and make new cells. That's just not something that research has shown to necessarily be happening with drinking coconut water. So, that's that's definitely a myth.

Next is that it's better than fruit juice and this one is fact. Coconut water generally does have fewer calories and less added sugar than fruit juice. However, you, again, definitely need to look at the labels. They can be deceiving so make sure that you're looking at that nutrition label to check the calories and the sugar content per serving on your water on, on your coconut water. A lot of times the bottles might say they have two or more servings when really you intend to drink it all at once. So you could be not meaning to but doubling your calorie content and doubling your sugar content. Make sure you look at those labels.

Next is that coconut water can help with the prevention of stroke and heart attack. Again, this one is a myth. And now where did this come from? Alright. So, cocnut water's kind of been touted as a heart healthy beverage for a long time. And that's because potassium in coconut water helps to counteract a lot of sodium that's in our diet. And sodium is what will really boost that blood or the excuse me, that blood pressure. Potassium is supposed to balance that. So, in theory, drinking coconut water would help prevent heart disease. Potassium's an incredible, incredibly important nutrient. However, potassium from food sources also has other vitamins and minerals and antioxidants and all that kind of stuff that promote a healthy body. So, it's more important to get your primary source of potassium through your diet; through a variety of foods and not just from coconut water because you're missing out on all of those other minerals and vitamins and antioxidants that you're going to get from a whole food source versus just a bottled water.

And then the last one here is that you're going to speed up your metabolism by drinking coconut water. Again, this one's a myth. When we're dehydrated our metabolism slows down. So, anything that you drink, it's going to help, kind of keep your metabolism speeding along and anything that you eat, or drink will give your body a temporary boost in metabolism because your body has to digest food. So, increasing a person's metabolism is very complicated. It requires a lot of different variables to consider -everything from your sleep to when you're eating your meals to your food choices. So, any one thing, any one food, any one nutrient, any one lifestyle choice is not going to increase your metabolic rate without the support of all of those other good choices, and all the things that are required of a healthy lifestyle in order for that to be true.

Alright next let's go onto alkaline water. So pure water has a neutral pH, right? When we look at that pH scale, it's right in the middle. It's at a seven. Tap water has some natural variation in it depending on its mineral content. Most bottle waters are slightly acidic and then sodas and juices are even more so. Bottled waters marketed as being alkaline typically claim that the pH of that water is somewhere between an 8 and 10. So, it's moving in the opposite direction. Some of these are coming from, like, springs or artisan wells. Some are naturally alkaline because of the types of minerals that are found in them. Others are made through an ionizing process and basically these ionizing machines will push the pH down to make them more alkaline.

You can get these for in home use as well. Alkaline water enthusiasts claim that it's an increase in the hydrogen which provides the greater hydration than regular water. So let's take a look at this.

So here again are the claims, right?

So fans of this stuff also say that regular drinking water with the pH below seven, so a more acidic water, creates too much acid in your blood, and in your cells and they say that plain water typically, because of it's lower pH will cause all sorts of health problems; everything from osteoporosis to cancer.

Water that is more alkaline is claimed to help reduce the acid in the bloodstream and push your body into a less acidic state. So by doing that, you get all of the benefits that you see here.

So we're improving our metabolism. We're increasing our energy. We're slowing our aging process, improving our digestion, reducing our bone loss. There's actually some claims that a higher pH water can do some great things in kind of eliminating cancer cells. So there's lots and lots of things that you might see here as as a benefit.

I apologize, I just lost my screen here.

Alright, however, research suggest that alkaline water is unlikely to significantly change our blood pH. So we've got to put a big fat myth on this one. Why is that? Well research kind of shows us that alkaline water really doesn't significantly change our blood.

There are some studies that suggest alkaline water might help to slow our bone loss, but it's not really clear if that's the benefit that we'll see for a long period of time. Others that might say that it helps to present or prevent these diseases. Like, we talked about, there's just not a lot of credible evidence to support those types of claims. But the bottom line is, is that when something hits your stomach, you have stomach acid that neutralizes it. So it doesn't matter what you're eating or drinking, when it hits your stomach, the acid in your stomach’s job is to put it into a neutral state so that your body can use it.

So, if you're drinking something that is a, is a lower pH, it's more alkaline, excuse me, it’s a higher pH, it’s more alkaline when it gets, you know, down into your stomach the pH is going to change anyway. So there's not a lot of time for that water to be absorbed through, you know, the lining of your, your mouth or of your throat prior to hitting your stomach. So, a lot of these claims, they don't, they don't add up when you think about the basic physiology of the body.

Next we have carbonated water, this category is going to include lots of different things so flavored water, like, LaCroix, or kinda like a sparkling water, seltzer waters, club sodas - you name it if it's bubbly and it's canned or bottled under pressure to make it fizzy then it's in this category. Sparkling water contains carbon dioxide that's either natural or it's been added, which will provide the carbonation. A lot of these other ones are just bottled under pressure.

The only one that's an exception to this is seltzer water. Carbonated waters usually have something added to them to help improve the taste. Sometimes the small amounts of other minerals are included natural sparkling waters - think about your Perrier or San Pellegrino. Those are different. Those are waters that have been captured from a mineral script spring and they tend to have some compounds in them that will help to carbonate them.

But tonic water is going to be the only form that's a little bit different. And that one is, because it's got some, a compound called quinine in it that kind of helps to carbonate it and it tastes very bitter. So typically, with tonic water, you tend to see some sugar or some high fructose corn syrup added to it to help with the taste. But basically anything that's bubbly is going to be in this category.

Flavored water is simply, again, it's just regular water that's had carbon dioxide added to it so it's just as hydrating as plain water. However, due to it's kind of of effervescent nature, some people tend to fill up on it pretty quickly when they drink it and therefore they drink less. So when we look at this myth, versus fact, we see carbonated water is as hydrating as plain water and yeah, that's a fact, kind of. But again, think back to what we just said, because of the bubbling units of it, we tend to feel fuller after we drink it.

So, if it hinders you from drinking the same amount, as you would regular water, then that might be a problem, right? So, if you're able to drink, you know, you're eleven and a half cups of carbonated water then, yep, it's just as hydrating as clean water.

However, if you can't get to that eleven and a half cups as a, as a female, for example, because you're feeling full from drinking it all day long, and it might be a hindrance to think about that.

The next one that you're going to see here myth, versus fact is carbonated water can cause bone weakening. Okay. So, let's first talk about why this claim is even here.

So, when we think of our cans soda, our traditional sodas, they contain phosphorus. And while there's not a lot of conclusive research yet, there's been some studies that have indicated that phosphorus content might impact bone density. And why is that? Well phosphorus levels, when they're elevated and we have a lower calcium levels in the body, what our body does is it produces the hormone that says, hey, send out less calcium through the kidneys, absorb more into the intestine and so our bones typically will give up some of that calcium.

However, we need to consider that the amount of phosphorous in a carbonated drink like, a soda wouldn't necessarily impact that that cycle - that physiological cycle in the body.

What we know for sure is that carbonated water doesn't contain phosphorous and or caffeine, which is a whole other gamut, it doesn't contain those like a soda does. So, there shouldn't be as much impact on our bone density. So we're gonna say that's myth. So to reiterate that our carbonated waters don't contain the same types of compounds that a traditional soda does.

So, where the claim is that some of these compounds that are seen in sodas, may cause our body to leach a little bit of calcium from the bones, because seltzer water, or any kind of carbonated water doesn't contain those compounds, the same physiological process isn't happening.

Our next claim is that carbonated water can erode tooth enamel. Alright. So, with this one, we think about additives that are in seltzer waters, they might be like, citric acid, for example, that they could impact your tooth enamel. I mean, enamel is again, that coating on the outside of your tooth that helps keep your teeth strong.

Well, this has been proven to be a myth and this is coming straight from the American Dental Association. What they say is that available research shows that sparkling waters or any type of carbonated water is generally fine for your teeth.

And here's why. There was a study using teeth that were removed as part of treatment, or donated for research and researchers tested to see whether sparkling waters would attack the tooth enamel more aggressively than a regular water.

The result was that the two forms of water did about the same in their effects on tooth enamel. That finding kind of suggested that even though sparkling water might be a little bit more acidic than ordinary water, it's just all water to your teeth. So, nothing too much to worry about there.

The last claim that we're going to look at here is that carbonated water can make you so full. Well, we've kind of already address this a little bit. Right? So, there is really no true limit to how much carbonated water, you should be drinking, right? In terms as you think about our water or water consumption goals throughout the day go back to your first statement that you see on the side here carbonated water is as hydrating is plain water. We say that's true. So really, there's, there's no limit on it. If you have some other things to think about, they might be, you know, again, how it's making your stomach feel. If you are feeling that that bubbling kind of then that might impact how much of that you can drink. So, really, it's just a toleration level.

So, we're going to say that this is myth. Carbonated water can make you feel full, but it's going to be just the experience of gas or bloating, or just other signs of stomach discomfort that you might be feeling after drinking. And that's going to be a temporary feeling. But if it is going to hinder you from drinking the amount of water that you should, and then take that into consideration.

What we have here again is some other things that you can consider adding to your water, and this is not an inclusive list. This is coming from for those of you that have Optima insurance. You have access to a WebMD portal as part of your Optima insurance, and when I went on there and looked for different flavored water recipes, these were the different types of things that showed up. So that's why they're included here.

However, you could go for any kind of combination that you want to. I will tell you that I have in the past tried some of these herbs that aren't as expected to be in water. I tried one with the rosemary in it. I tried one with thyme in it, along with some citrus fruits and they were really delicious.

So, if you're looking for some ways to flavor your water outside of just your traditional lemon or lime, just go online and take a look. Make sure that you're looking at, again, your whole foods, you want to avoid additives or any types of syrups or sugars.

Because then again, that's going to put some added sugar into your drink. Whereas otherwise you would be in the clear. So, take a look at some of these to consider or again, just do some research on the web to find a good one for you to try.

At this point, I can't take questions because this is recorded, but if you do have any questions, you're welcome to reach out to our department. We'd be happy to answer any of those that you have. Otherwise we, thank you so much for your time today. Hope that you enjoyed this presentation, and we'll be back next month with another topic and hopefully you can review that along with other all of our other recorded presentations that are listed on the page. Thanks so much and have a wonderful day.